Diuretics Medicines Information

 

Diuretic Drugs

What are diuretic drugs?
What are water pills?
What diuretic drugs are prescribed for?
Misuse of diuretic medicines
What is the relation between diuretic drugs and blood pressure?
Why am i prescribed diuretic pills?
How diuretic drugs work?
How to take diuretic drug?
What are the side effect of diuretic drugs?
What are the types of diuretic drugs?
Tell me names of approved list of diuretic drugs

What are diuretic drugs?

Diuretic drugs are given to increase urine production in body. Accumulation of fluid in body is called edema or oedema.

In general diuretic drugs are commonly referred as water pills. So, diuretic drugs are water pills.

What diuretic drugs are prescribed for?

Diuretic drugs are mainly prescribed to patient with high blood pressure along with other blood pressure drugs.

Diuretic drugs are also used in treatment regimen of various disorders such as heart failure, liver and kideny disorers.

Diuretic medicines may be used to eliminate toxic drug from body through urine. This is called forced diuresis. A physician decides about when to use forced diuresis. However, most common usage of forced diuresis is to treat accidental drug overdose or poisoning of certain drugs.

Misuse of diuretic drugs

Some people with eating disorders often use diuretic drugs for weight loss. Nobody knows how diuretic helps weight loss, however it is proven fact that diuretic taken for weight loss has potential health risk.

Diuretic drugs and blood pressure relation?

Blood pressure is the pressure put by blood on vessles of heart. Diuretic medicines help in removing excess fluid and salts from body. This prevents accumulation of fluid in heart vessles and makes task easy for heart to pump blood.

Why am i prescribed diuretic pills?

Only your physician can tell why diuretic has been prescribed to you. However, assumption can be made from type of diuretic drugs.

You are being treated to keep blood pressure low if diuretic is of type Thiazide Diuretic.

You are being treated post heart failure condition if diuretic is of type Loop Diuretic and Potassium-sparing diuretics.

How diuretic drugs work?

A diuretic drug works by acting on kidney. Body contains salts like sodium chloride with water. Kidney maintains balance by filtering sodium chloride and other useless substances from the blood which forms urine. However, filtered substances are reabsorbed in blood before urine leaves kidney. Diuretic drugs stop this reabsorption which eventually results in frequent urine.

How to take diuretic drug?

Generally diuretic drugs are instructed to take with water or milk in morning in stead of at night so that frequent urination would not distrub your sleep. However, a physician is the best person to tell you how and when to take diuretic drugs.

Takin diuretic must also be followed by diet instructions given by doctor. Some common instructions are taking low sodium food, include food rich in potassium or suplements and avoid potassium rich food if diuretic is potassium-sparing (Aldactone).

What are the side effect of diuretic drugs?

  • Frequent urination
  • Irregular heart rhythm
  • Imbalance in Electrolyte: Get blood test done and do maintain doctor's appointment to monitor in order to avoid this side effect
  • Unusal weakness or tiredness: This side effect most probably disappears as your body get used to with diuretic drug you are taking. Consultation with doctor is advisable if this side effects persist longer.
  • Muscle cramps or weakness: This side effect is noticed if potassium food or supplement are suggested. Make sure you take supplemtns as directed by doctor (not fitness expert)
  • Dizziness, lightheadedness: get up comparitively slowler from sitting position or lying.
  • Blurred vision, excess sweating, confusion, restlessness and headache: Talk to doctor if these are severe
  • Dehydration: This may cause dizziness, unusual dry mouth, extreme thirst, dark-colored urine, lowered urine output, and constipation. Do not think you require more water and talk to your physician if you experience these side effects.
  • Sore throat, fever, cough, bruising / bleeding, ringing in the ears, losing weight rapidly and excessively. Contact your doctor right away.
  • Skin rash: This side effect is most probably because you are allergic to diuretic medicine you are taking. Stop and do not take medicine and call your physician.
  • Loss of appetite, vomiting, nausea and muscle cramps: Ensure that suggested potassium food or supplements is followed properly by you.

 

What are the types of diuretic drugs?

  1. Thiazides Diuretic
  2. Osmotic diuretics
  3. Potassium-sparing diuretics
  4. Calcium-sparing diuretics
  5. Low ceiling diuretics
  6. High ceiling loop diuretic

Approved list of diuretic drugs

 

Diuretics are commonly defined as drugs that increase the amount of urine produced by the kidneys. A precise definition is that diuretics are agents which augment the renal excretion of sodium and either chloride or bicarbonate primarily, and water excretion secondarily. Clinically diuretics are the mainstay of treatment of hypertension and edematous states like congestive heart failure, cirrhosis with ascites, nephritic edema, and edema or pregnancy.

Classification Of Diuretics

Although these drugs vary in their chemical structure and mechanisms of action, almost all of them interfere with the tubular reabsorption of sodium.

INDIVIDUAL AGENTS BENZOTHIADIAZIDES (THIAZIDES)

The Thiazides are related chemically to the sulphonamides, but have no antibacterial activity. The thiazide also posses some carbonic anhydrase inhibiting activity. Most of these diuretics are derived from benzothiadiazine and thus known and "thiazide".
The Thiazides have an antihypertensive action. It is of interest here to note that the non-diuretic thiazide, diazoxide, has a potent hypotensive effect without having any renal action.

HIGH-CEILING OR LOOP DIURETICS l

Frusemidebumetanide and ethacrynic acid have been labeled as "high-ceiling" or "loop diuretics", because the inhibit the sodium and chloride reabsorption in the thick segment of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle as well as in the proximal convoluted tubule, and the distal diluting site. Thus they are very potent diuretics, and induce a dramatic and copious flow of urine rich in sodium chloride.

CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS

Acetazolamide is a sulphonamide and is the prototype carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have a limited use as diuretics.

POTASSIUM-SPARING DIURETICS

The potassium-sparing diuretics, spironolactone, triamterene and amiloride, interfere with sodium reabsorption at the distal exchange sites, and promote sodium excretion while potassium is conserved. Their major use is in conjunction with the thiazide or loop diuretics. Such a combined therapy reduces potassium loss, minimizes alkalosis, and is sometimes effective in refractory edema. 
Spironolactone : Spironolactone is an aldosterone antagonist. Aldosterone is an adrenal mineral corticoid responsible for the main of electrolyte balance in the body.
Triamterene : Triamterene is a nonsteroidal compound, which produces a spironolactone-like effect by acting on the distal tubule to increase Na+, C1- and H2CO3 loss and conserve K’. But it is not an aldosterone antagonist.
Amiloride: Amiloride is an organic base and has renal actions like triamterene. Its mode of action is incompletely understood. It has no aldosterone antagonistic activity.

OSMOTIC DIURETICS

Osmotic diuretics are non-electrolytes, which are freely filtered at the glomerulus, and are not significantly reabsorbed from the tubules, and there presence in the urine cause increase in the excreted electrolytes and volume flow.
Mannitol: This osmotic diuretic is administered intravenously, and is useful for the prophylaxis of acute renal failure. It is also used to reduce intraocular pressure and vitreous volume prior to ocular surgery; to reduce intracranial pressure in patients of cerebral edema; and to promote excretion of toxic substances.
Urea: Urea also is administered intravenously, and tends to draw fluid from the extracellular space into the blood. Urea is useful for reducing a raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure during neurosurgical operations and cerebral edema following head injury.
Glycerol
Glycerol is of particular use prior to ophthalmological procedures to reduce intraocular pressure.
Isosorbide
Isosorbide is available as an oral solution (45%) for reduction of intraocular pressure prior to, or following eye surgery for glaucoma or cataract, or to check an acute attack of glaucoma.

METHYLXANTHINES

The xanthenes (theophylline, theobromine, caffeine) have a weak diuretic activity Aminophylline (theophylline ethylenedianine) is the most used member.

THERAPEUTIC USES OF DIURETICS

1. Congestive Heart Failure (CHF). Digitalis is used in adequate doses to increase the cardiac output, and improve renal hemodynamic, with results in diuresis. Dietary sodium intake is restricted.
2. Essential hypertension. The thiazide usually serve as primary antihypertensive agents
3. Hepatic cirrhosis with ascites. Potassium-sparing diuretics like spironolactone may be employed. If spironolactone alone fails, then a thiazide diuretic can be added cautiously.
4. Nephrotic syndrome. Dietary sodium restriction may be combined with a thiazide diuretic, adding spironolactone to control secondary hyperaldosteronism.
5. Chronic renal failure. Careful attention to salt and water balance is required. A loop diuretic like frusemide may be useful in controlling both edema and hypertension.

 


Below is the List of Diuretic Drugs

Aldactone

  • Generic Aldactone (spironolactone) is FDA approved diuretic drug to treat high blood pressure. Compare generic Aldactone price and save %60...
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Microzide

  • Microzide (Hydrochlorothiazide) is diuretic drug mostly used as single initial therapy, or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs in the management of hypertension....
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Lasix furosemide

  • Compare Lasix prices. Fursemide (gneric Lasix) is FDA approved diuretic drug of class loop diuretics....
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